The Race: American Cities, Part 4

ElizCardamone1) How do you define yourself racially or ethnically and why is it important to you? Please tell us about the racial makeup of your family if you were adopted or come from a colorful family.

I am white and so is my family. My husband is 100% Italian, first generation (his parents were both born in a small town in Italia) so there is an ethnic component to my family now. I am comfortable being white because I have known no other way of being. It is important to me.

2) Where do you live? If you have ever moved, whether to another city or the other side of the world, please tell us when and where, and the ways the cultural differences between the places shaped or made you think about your identity.

I grew up in Providence, RI. I had lots of Jewish friends, as the upscale neighborhood where I lived was predominantly Jewish. After my parents divorced, my mother moved back to her hometown in upstate NY, and I visited her on school vacations. Because Providence is a city, there was more of an opportunity to mix with different ethnicities there than in Mom’s town.

I traveled the world as a girl with my father, and had an opportunity to observe differences between America and other countries: I was frightened by the poverty I saw and intrigued by the different ways of living. In Belize, for example, I had the privilege of dining with a Mayan farmer and his family. They lived simply, in huts with no doors, dirt floors, no furniture or appliances. The farmer’s wife cooked our tortillas on an open fire pit situated in the middle of the floor.

These experiences made me aware of my fortune being born white and American. These identifications ensured freedom, access to public education, fairly unlimited career and life choices. I came to appreciate this access from my travels, instead of take it for granted. However, I also witnessed a simpler way of life, one centered on survival rather than accomplishment and entitlement. There was an undeniable appeal to this way of living. Ultimately, though, I was glad both to be aware of these differences and of the access I had because of my race and nationality. My awareness of other cultures instilled in me an ongoing curiosity about other lifestyles.

I attended college in upstate NY at a small, private university with few African-Americans. I started dating my husband freshman year. After graduation, we lived in Philadelphia and a predominantly all-white Chicago suburb before we moved to my husband’s hometown of Lewiston, NY (a suburb of of Buffalo).

3) How diverse was the neighborhood and school you grew up in?

Although we were not wealthy, I lived in a rich neighborhood occupied by wealthy families, many of them Jewish. My public elementary and high schools were very racially diverse. In these settings, I hung out with girls from my neighborhood. I was the only non-Jewish person amongst friends. I attended a private Quaker middle school.  There was only one African-American boy in my grade.  Because I was not wealthy, I did not have many friends.

4) When did you first become conscious of your race or ethnicity? Please describe the context or a moment when you noticed you were different in color or language. It could be a scene with strangers, the park, school, work. Could have been subtle feelings you recognized or a blatant attack of bigotry. If it was a season or chapter in your life, tell us the impact it had on your sense of self, confidence, or emotional development. Can you share a bit about the fear, loneliness, longing for acceptance?

I felt race differences most keenly in elementary and high school, which had higher percentages of African Americans.  I would have liked to become friends with several African American girls in my class, but never had the guts to approach them because of the hostility I sensed. I assumed they rejected me because I was white. In high school, I liked an African-American girl because she asked as many questions in class as I did. I wrongly assumed this commonality meant we could be friends, but she made it clear outside of class we were different.

At recess, while the African-American girls played double dutch jump rope games, I stood nearby, watching enviously along with the other white girls. My group even set up a double dutch game next to the African-American girls, but we never matched their finesse, as emphasized by their snickers and eye rolling.

5) Do you consciously gravitate to certain company? Are you more comfortable, more at home around people of your own ethnicity? Have you observed a social or behavioral tendency in your own people group you would rather not perpetuate?

I consciously gravitate towards whites because of the hostility I sense from African-Americans. White acquaintances have made racial slurs, which I did not respond to either negatively or positively. This type of behavior makes me uncomfortable, and I step away when I can.

6) Are your most meaningful relationships with people of your own ethnicity?


7) How much does racial affinity give you a sense of belonging compared to a shared faith or interest? Think about the groups you are part of: writers, homeschoolers, mothers, hobbyist, artists, colleagues, church. Would you rather spend time with those who share your cultural food, tradition, and values or those who share your interest or mission? Where do you feel the greatest ease and connection?

I feel like an outsider no matter what group I am in. In general, my responses to events rarely coincide with society’s prescribed feelings (immediate fulfillment you’re supposed to have giving birth, instant intimacy with spouse after getting married, fulfillment as a full-time mother). I desperately wanted these things, but because of unresolved childhood traumas, was unable to embrace them in the moments they were happening.  It is only now, after years of treatment for depression and anxiety, and my own self reflection through my book, that I can honestly feel these things. I spend a lot of time alone, and with my family in the evenings, and prefer it that way. That is where I feel the greatest ease.

8) Do you consciously try to keep yourself or your family active in diverse circles?


9) Children seem color-blind. How have you explained color and culture to your children or grandchildren as they got older? Did you ever have to handle a situation where they were a victim of racial slight or slur?

Before we moved here, we lived in another conservative mostly white suburb in Wheaton, IL. There we went to a drive-in movie when our twin boys were small.  The place where we parked was paved with small stones, which our boys continued to throw. They reluctantly stopped at our reprimand.  A few minutes later, the boys observed some African-American children throwing stones, and became outraged.  They yelled: “Hey, chocolate people, stop throwing stones.”  My children are not prejudiced. They just wanted to get the attention of strangers and used obvious descriptive words. We were so embarrassed and explained why such remarks are inappropriate.

10) How did you set out to secure a sense of acceptance and belonging in social contexts, especially if you have faced hurtful experiences?

I usually stand alone.  My husband says the aloofness keeps people from approaching me.  I have been let down by many friends, so I prefer not to risk further hurt.

11) Do you feel it is not fully possible or even imperative to shed all racial stereotypes and judgments?

No, I don’t think it is possible, but I do think our society pretends it is less racist than it actually is (hence President Obama’s encouraging speech to African-American men who, statistically speaking, have little opportunity in America.)  The worst word I know is the n word.  I won’t say it, and get so sick to my stomach when I hear it, that I have to move away.  I wish it could be obliterated from our language.

12) What has struck you the most in working through this exercise? Any closing thoughts on race and identity you would like to share?

I live a very sheltered life, and while I sympathize in theory with the struggles African-Americans face (learned about through education, media and literature), I have done nothing to help them.  I don’t think I am that brave.

Elizabeth at Breaking the Cycle

84 thoughts on “The Race: American Cities, Part 4

  1. Reblogged this on Breaking the Cycle and commented:
    I had the opportunity to participate in a discussion on race through one of my favorite bloggers, The Holistic Wayfarer ( Diana is a lovely woman with thought-provoking and sensitive blogs. I encourage you to check her out, particularly her blogs on race. Fascinating!

    Best regards,

    • Thanks for the good word, Elizabeth. I did get the initial comment with the reblog; you’ve thanked me enough. So glad you found yourself giving voice even to your own self on this. And those thoughts you thought were ancillary or extraneous were actually very significant. I hope to talk about them in a post down the line. =) (Remember….spot the seed of a post on the dirt and gravel…)

      Oh, do you know how to link so that readers can tap my username and link right into the site you’re referring to? Not really important in this case bc readers have to finish the post on my site but asking for other link-backs you will put up in the future.

      • Below my comment on my blog, there’s your pic and site name in blue so they can click to get to you. Hope that helps.

        You are so right about post ideas in the dirt. Lots came out of this effort. Thanks 🙂

        Best regards,

      • I am so sorry, Tienny. I cannot imagine how that must have felt, witnessing that violence up close and fearing for your and your loved ones safety. Here in America, middle class Americans (mostly) have the privilege of being removed from such incidents, which is good and bad. It’s good because we don’t have to go through what you are going through (sorry, don’t mean to make it seem like I have it better than you) and bad, because in many parts of our country, especially inner cities which are sometimes mere miles from where our homes, there are real and mortally dangerous war zones that people, esp. African Americans, face every second. Statistically, African American men have a higher chance of going to jail or dying than other races. This is a disparity that everyone acknowledges needs addressing, but, as a middle class white woman, I can say I am befuddled as to what I can do about it. I don’t want to show up in these neighborhoods for fear of being harmed. Plus, I don’t think they would appreciate my presence or pretense of knowing their situation. I look to my elected officials for guidance, esp. our president, who is himself an African American male.

        Anyway I am sorry for your pain and the removal of safety from your life. I appreciate your repeated comments. You are very brave.

        Best regards,

      • Elizabeth said it all better than I could’ve, T. With an accurate description of inner city life and its curious closeness to the wealthier parts of America. Thanks for staying in touch and sharing, T.

      • Though not someone I know get hurt, I feel hurt to those who is affected. Though my family and neighbors at my side are safe, looking at the riot opposite my shophouses really scares my family and worried of being attacked.

  2. Hi Elizabeth! In my experience, the majority of whites (of which I am one) have a similar perspective to yours on race. I never gave it much thought until it became evident that those of other races were unfriendly to me. My reaction to that was as yours – I simply turned away and didn’t pay any further attention. I too could afford to do that as I was raised in predominately white neighborhoods. As I’ve grown older and our society more racially mixed, I have come to realize that my reaction was no longer an option. I may be naive but I suspect that most racial biases are a result of one or the other party coming to the table angry. If we can look past that (way easier said than done, I know), I think race/culture integration would be a much reduced challenge.

    Thank You Elizabeth, for your honesty and openness in this post. It takes a great deal of strength to publish your unvarnished thoughts. I am honored.

    • The honor is all mine. I agree that it is no longer an option to let the hostility perception keep me from coming to the table. Now that I am working through my compulsions about what others think, I hope to be less defensive and more appreciative when such discussions take place.

      Diana, sorry to have hijacked your blog.

      Best regards,

      • LOL You’re supposed to. Hey, you’re my first guest ever. Technically, contributor (bc a guest has access to my dashboard). But close enough).


        Go for it. I’m happy to introduce you to the thoughtful peeps who took the time.

  3. This is an issue that in many ways has been part of my life from an early age on an ethnicity ground. Difference at times is used to hurt. I struggle to understand such attitudes and as a result find it difficult to address the issue in anything other than an intellectual manner. This perhaps is my own way of stepping back, of wielding a shield against adversity.

    • V, I look fwd to Elizabeth’s reply. In the meantime, can you clarify “Difference at times is used to hurt.”?

      “find it difficult to address the issue in anything other than an intellectual manner. This perhaps is my own way of stepping back, of wielding a shield against adversity.” I can see that. I appreciate the honesty. You remind me of something important, actually essential, to this project: the honesty of readers as well as the writers.

      • I would love the clarification Diana requested so that I respond appropriately. Thanks for your comment, and hope to hear more.

        Best regards,

      • Thank you, Diana. Regarding difference being used to hurt, I refer both to discrimination at an institutional level as well as to instances of individual attacks on anyone who is perceived as different. The measure of a society lies in how it treats its minorities – many have asserted this, and I hold it to be true. Yet I will add to this that in many societies where a minority is in charge, majorities (when ethnically, racially or culturally distinct) have also been oppressed on the basis of that difference. There are sufficient instances of this throughout history.
        While difference amongst human beings is a fact of life, the way that difference is perceived is socially constructed and then used to usurp any attempt at equity in social standing, economic affluence, and access to education amongst other things.

    • I didn’t see an option to reply to your reply below, but I absolutely agree with you. Differences are inherent, discrimination is a societal construct established to create the illusion of betters and worses. So much unhappiness, violence, upheaval comes out of these constructs. Why can’t we all see our equality and embrace our differences as Diana so well articulates in her personal accounts on race?

      • Why indeed? An author whose work I have been studying closely claims that one of the reasons for racism may reside in self-identification. Of course he referred to group level, but since individuals are social products, I think we can extrapolate.
        He argued that to view the “other” as superiors would be self-destructive for one’s identity. Regarding the “other” as an equal requires an acceptance that values and norms that differ to our own have nonetheless an equal worth. This position requires a more nuanced approach to difference, not impossible, but certainly one that requires self-awareness as well as self-reflection.
        The last position that groups take in self-identification is one of superiority and unfortunately this is the one that is by far the easiest to adopt – mainly because the binary of us vs them creates a sense of belonging and a feeling of security in one’s own identity.
        However unfortunate a position to take, I am afraid that throughout history there are far more examples of the latter that of the others.

      • What a fascinating take. Can you share the author and book title? I would love to read it. I hope I can regard others as equals, instead of superiors or inferiors, as well as be mindful of differences and non-judgment as a way to perpetuate equality.

  4. A great Blog you have, Elizabeth. I never was aware of “Color” until my husband and I traveled to the Bahamas years ago with our best friends (who are African-American). For the first time in my life I felt discrimination. Our friends were the first to be seated, received excellent service, special treatment, etc. I remember my best friend saying to me, “Welcome to my world.”

    • Respectfully, my perception of discrimination is that it is something that occurs on a regular basis and because of an aspect of yourself you cannot control (skin color, sexual orientation, financial class.) By that perception, I don’t know if what you experienced is discrimination because it was temporary and not related to a permanent part of yourself. But, this is only my opinion.

      Best regards,

    • Elizabeth, KCG is a faithful reader of mine. I think she used “blog” for the word “post,” as many tend to do. =) KCG, I found your comment very interesting and honestly, like someone had opened a window, almost. We can be sympathetic to those who suffer discrimination or slurs but it’s really another thing when we experience it. I really appreciate your sharing something that was such an eye-opener, something so jarring, with us.


      • Yes, I overreacted. I’m sorry. You shared a personal event, and I reacted in rushed righteousness. I appreciate your honesty and courage. Please excuse me. Totally out of place here.

        Best regards,

      • I understand. You are right, Diana This was years ago, and I had not fully understood or comprehended discrimination before. Since then, I’ve become keenly aware. My friends are with me often. We talk openly about discrimination in all aspects of life. The husband is taping his childhood for me now so that I can write articles for the American Diversity Report and other venues. Someday a book…who knows? His young life is unbelievable. So much he and his family has gone through….

      • Hey, do you guys know the story Homeless to Harvard? Just Google the title with Liz Murray.

        You really have to read it for the project you guys are working on. A fast read.

    • I don’t know why the title I recommended you, K, went crazy in format here with the link I put up. I’ve revised the comment with the title and author. Hope you can chk it out. I’d love to hear your husband’s reaction.

  5. When I went to KCG’s site, I realized that I was so inspired by her about section, in which she shared a touching story of finding inspiration in her local library, that I began following her. It goes to show improvement is needed on my attention to detail and open mindedness. So many lessons, especially when we step in it as I did here.

    Best regards,

  6. Really admire Elizabeth for her honesty in her answers to the delicate topic of race.
    Although I am a white woman from France who now lives in the US, and an American ciitzen I am still sometimes caught between two chairs in terms of culture and language. I tend to attract and be attracted by people who belong to minority groups because anything that targets people as “different” brings them closer. Accents in a strange way ostrazice people. Not as much as color of course but lots of men and women assume that having an accent makes you either “cute” or “not that smart.”
    Thank you for this interesting post.

    • Evelyne, I just love your feedback. In writing my story for the series, I realized class and language had everything to do with this race question. But I was wrangling with post length so decided to save the thoughts on language (with a bachelor’s degree in linguistics) for a future post. I’ve noted your comment for that post. Thanks.


      • Did you read Evelyne’s post on taking her husband’s name and the pronunciation issues she encountered when she came to America? Another idea for one of your future thought-provoking posts?

  7. ohh… this post was rather eye opening. i didn’t realize that whites felt hostility from other races… that seems very foreign to me, because i had always felt it was the other way around (being judged and isolated by whites) so it’s interesting to read your story.

    i really appreciate this post and your series on race.. thanks elizabeth for sharing and thanks diana for hosting this series.

    • “i didn’t realize that whites felt hostility from other races… ”

      HUH. I wonder why that didn’t jar me. Gotta think.

      And my pleasure! Those who are interested are totally vested in this series. Very cool. Every comment, no matter how brief, sheds some light, strengthens ties. Is building community.



      • Wonderfully said, Diana and searching for substance. I had wondered if the hostility I sensed from non-whites was the same as hostility I sensed from strangers, in other words it existed because of an inability on either part to talk it through. Also, the fact that this perception existed in multiple scenarios suggested to me that it was my problem, probably of my own fabrication, and not anyone else’s.

      • YES, Elizabeth! I thoroughly appreciate your willingness to look at any internal sources or contribution to the perceived and real race tension rather than “blaming” the OTheRs. This is what I’d meant earlier, that those other personal factors (of fear, old wounds, hurt) you thought might be extraneous are actually integral to all bumps in your relationships – incl those across race.

        By strangers, you were referring to any conflict or being ill at ease in situations that did not have to do with race, right?

      • Yes, Diana, by strangers, I meant anyone I didn’t know regardless of skin color. Actually, if I’m being honest, I am most ill-at-ease with affluent attractive white women because I am aware I should be like them (based on another perception) but doubt I am and in perceiving the difference, I feel shame and inferior. Oh golly, didn’t mean to lay down on your couch and bare my soul, but it seems that’s what I am doing!

      • LOL!! Gee, that would’ve been a great (actually, juicey) bit in the post itself. Amazing confession/epiphany!!

        And the couch has your name on it – sprawl away (as much as it’s not like you to sprawl).

      • “I am most ill-at-ease with affluent attractive white women because I am aware I should be like them (based on another perception) but doubt I am and in perceiving the difference, I feel shame and inferior. ”

        So on the flip side, were you possibly drawn to those Afr-American girls or other black Americans out of a sense (or perception on your part) that they were more at your income level (which you say was not high)? Woah, right?

      • No, I think that awareness came in college, after I pledged a sorority where most of the girls fit that profile, and I realized: 1) I don’t fit in, and 2) I wonder why not and yet, I am glad I don’t.
        You’re right, I should have mentioned that in the post, but I forgot until now (40 year old steel trap is getting rusty.)
        Now, I don’t mind that I didn’t fit in, but at the time, it was tough for me because I hadn’t connected the dots that my background made fitting in impossible. I had been to lunch at the Mayan farmer’s house, I had been raised by a gay dad, I wasn’t wealthy, I had been responsible for my emotions/progression in the world since around age 6, which made me wary and wise and dumb.

      • Hmmm, I’ll have to think about that one. As always, you inspire me to think (a rare occurrence, I’ll grant you!)

      • Hi, my short answer is Yes. I have I think three great-grand parents, one each from:Norway, Sweden, and England. These are all on my father’s side. His grandmother’s family,(Ross) came here from Canada and before that Scotland. The Rosses married into a family that had been in the states before the revolutionary war. They were from England.
        My mother’s family is primarily English and Irish. I have no records to indicate this. Just family hearsay, a 2nd cousin who is Mormon and some old photos. I do know that some of them were here before the civil war. Sorry to be so technical. I wrote a family history book several years back.
        My life growing up was just being American.

      • I love Genealogy. I am mostly English, Irish and German, but on my mother’s side, we’ve been here since before the Rev. War as well. Father’s father’s side immigrated from Ireland via Canada five generations back (my great great grandfather and his brothers served in the Civil War for the North.) Father’s mother’s side was 100% German, but going back several generations here in America (was nervous they might have been in Germany for WW2, but they were in America before that time.)

  8. Very honest and thought provoking post. Although multiculturalism has become more socially acceptable, there still exists an undercurrent of racial hostility. It is not enough to be socially conscious of it, rather we must take personal steps to not reinforce it.
    As an African American woman I am always challenged by stereotypes by white counterparts who assume that I am ill educated, have children out of wedlock, and or promiscuous all because I am black. At first I found myself exhausted with attempting to overcome the negativism but when I embraced my faith in God that I am fearfully and wonderfully made, that is when it no longer became a battle. Now when they observe and find that I do not fit their preconceived “ghetto” notions it confounds them and they are now challenged with new information. And this is not to say they haven’t tried to antagonize with remarks or slurs. When they do I confront them because if they don’t like to be thought of in a negative light than neither do I.
    I will not say I convinced or changed all but I know that they are left with a little bit more information than they had before.

    • I simply loVe the elaboration on “It is not enough to be socially conscious of it, rather we must take personal steps to not reinforce it.”

      out of your personal story. WoW. To the stereotypes you’ve had to battle, the (YES!) power and confidence you’ve demonstrated out of your identity in God and His handprints on you, and the truth you have spoken into ignorance and malice.

      You’ve GOT to listen to this. She makes me so proud of Afr-Americans. When I don’t have a drop of her blood in my family LOL.

      Why can’t Asian-American peeps write like this???!!!!

      • I have to have my husband reinstall Adobe flashplayer so I can watch this and comment.

        Ladycheetah7, it sounds like you are one tough cookie. I am sorry for the stereotyping you have endured and am awed by you ability to rise above it all and confront, in a well intentioned way, ignorance. Your efforts must make a huge difference.

        Thank you for sharing.

      • Elizabeth it is all apart of the ugly things in life and we must live with courage one day at a time. If it weren’t for Christ and his strength I would be no better than those of my same race who hold like views of their white counterparts. Be strong and of good courage. There are some African Americans out there who think just like you and want to make a difference too!

      • Thank you Samuel. I know better than to group a race as homogeneous and must follow my own advice and reinforce steps to not respond in like manner when in the presense of those who passively or aggressively take pleasure in creating affliction. It is very encouraging to know that their are independent thinkers out there because analytic thinking and developing your own personal views, without just accepting things the way they are and defaulting to “this is what I have been taught to believe” mentality, is hard work.

  9. I just watched Dr. Finney’s acceptance speech. “Do you really have time to sit there? Have you read all the books in the library? African Americans, the only race to be brought to this country and not allowed to read”…so beautiful, articulate and humble. Thanks, Diana, for broadening my knowledge. I will find her works and enjoy.

  10. Thanks, ladies, for your comments. (Guys, where are you?)
    I just finished “Americanah,” which I picked up in Denver Airport a week and a half ago. Written by Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie, a brilliant Nigerian writer, this hefty (588 pp. paperback) novel grabbed my attention from the get-go. It’s about race, class, and belonging as it traces Ifemelu’s journey from Nigeria to the US and back. Only when she came to America did she have to deal with the issue of racism. (cardamone noted that African Americans were the only race to be brought to this country and not allowed to read–a terrible imposition by white America.)
    I took my family to Africa for the two years I worked there. One of the blessings was that the local nationals did not exhibit the wariness or hostility of blacks toward whites, as in America. We made some solid friendships while there, which were still intact when I returned to that country 25 years later!!

    • Thanks for your input, Samuel. Fascinating, the (warm) reception you had in Africa. I will let Cardm. respond but had to say I have a lot of male followers. Huh. Where aRe they right now? =)

      H Wayfarer

      • Samuel, how wonderful you gave your family such an experience, esp. the perspective of non-racism compared to America. I only traveled to Africa once, and that was to Cairo. I was so young I didn’t pick up on any differences between how I was treated there vs. in America. I will say that even at the ripe old age of 11, the generosity exhibited by the Mayan farmer while on a trip to Belize, Central America, who biked 50 miles round trip to obtain a chicken for our lunch, the openness of his family by allowing strangers to come in and out of his multi-hut dwelling and the experience of splashing in the Monkey River with his children while being watchful for piranha was so wonderful and joyous, it did shape me and open my eyes. I will check out that book you referenced. Thank you for your insights and comments.

  11. He grew up in the States. His parents immigrated here in their early twenties. Coincidentally, from the same town in Italy. He understands Italian, but responds in English. The first time I met his grandparents (a gesture whose significance was lost on my naive 20 year old self) I watched this fascinating method of communicating. I only understood the English parts, but it didn’t matter because I learned the importance of non-verbal communication: the love radiating from their eyes when they looked at their grandson, his ready smile and respectful, but playful demeanor, the importance of meal preparation and eating together. it was a beautiful experience.

  12. Hi there,
    It is a good topic that you have raised, nowadays one should say that it is more a multicultural issue rather than racial, I think. I am Portuguese – the latin type but I have African students and a lady house-helper that is black from Cape Vert (an ancient colony of Portugal, as Angola, Mozambique , Guinea). From my experience, discrimination based on the colour of the skin left big marks, that explain why a black person may still feel embarassed when going in a place (like a shop or cafe) where only white people can be usually seen even in Portugal which has a multicultural tradition. Some of my students from Angola say they sometimes feel discriminated but I think that is mainly because they are foreigners and have a different culture. When I was living in the UK I felt sometimes left behind but for the same reason…I was a foreigner, although I am white, like the Brits…

  13. Such an interesting perspective, anabrav. Thanks for sharing. I agree with you. I think foreigners can feel the sting of exclusion too. I have felt that on some of my travels. As an American I sometimes encountered rudeness because people assumed I was an embodiment of the obnoxious American stereotype. I also felt an assumption amidst patriarchal societies such as Greece that because I was a woman, it was alright to grope or harass me. Sometime, I’ll have to share my experience of losing my passport on my way home from an archeological dig in Greece when I was sixteen, and being fondled by a cab driver who was an old man (but not on Diana’s blogs as I have overstayed my welcome here and dominated enough of her space!!!)

    I’ve traveled to Portugal, and loved it, esp. Lisbon and the Algarve. I loved how the outside architecture could be crumbling while inside were high walled terraces with fountains and beautiful plants growing.

    Thank you for your insights. You truly help expand the scope of this post.

    Best regards,

  14. Pingback: The Race: American Cities, Part 4 | 2l2phant

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